What can non-sandboxed macOS apps see?

What can non-sandboxed macOS apps see by default?

I am aware that macOS restricts access to a fair amount of information, even when an app isn’t sandboxed. For instance, it cannot by default access the sensors and data (photos, contacts) protected by permissions. More recently, apps cannot access the data of sandboxed apps without permission (in fact, it sounds like the new macOS Sequoia extends this additional sandboxing).

Source: What’s new in privacy - WWDC24 - Videos - Apple Developer

This makes me wonder - what can non-sandboxed apps still see on macOS by default? It actually sounds pretty limited these days, and I’m hoping someone with a more informed brain than mine can shed some light on whether Apple has largely solved the risk of a non-sandboxed OS.

Appreciate you all and this forum :heart:

Anything protected by the permissions in the settings is protected from all software so like your desktop and downloads folders, camera microphone etc. Like you said they can’t see files from sandboxed apps. Everything else is pretty much open season though. Of course you can always set the read/write permissions of files and folders to whatever you want.